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The establishment of the Byzantine and Christian Museum was the result of long and laborious efforts of the Christian Archaeological Society, completed on November 17, 1917. Queen Olga became the High Patron of the Christian Archaeological Society which she supported in every way. She provided financial assistance for trips around Greece intended for the collection of Christian relics.

Queen Olga's contribution to the Christian Archaeological Society is evident in the description provided by the French Journal «Journal des Débats». Below is a translation of a Greek newspaper article from that time:

«Yesterday came from Paris an article by the newspaper "Journal of the Discussion", praising the Christian Greek Archaeological Society and the newly established Museum. The orderly performance of the Society was attributed to the six-year Patronage of Queen Olga, thanks to which the Society has managed to overcome many obstacles and especially the prevailing ignorance, indifference and contempt against all ancient objects not dating to the classical era. The journal eloquently describes the unjustified neglect of archaeologists for Christian art cites. An example of this indifference is that the Metropolitan Cathedral of Athens was built in 1840 from the rubble of 170 Byzantine churches which were demolished for this purpose..."